Sony Digital Rapids Pixel Power calrec Sony

March 18, 2019

18/03/2019

Scientists hunt down the brain circuit responsible for alcohol cravings

March 18, 2019

LA JOLLA, CA Scientists at Scripps Research have found that they can reverse the desire to drink in alcohol-dependent rats with the flip of a switch. The researchers were able to use lasers to temporarily inactivate a specific neuronal population, reversing alcohol-seeking behavior and even reducing the physical symptoms of withdrawal.

This discovery is exciting it means we have another piece of the puzzle to explain the neural mechanism driving alcohol consumption, says Olivier George, PhD, an associate professor at Scripps Research and senior author of the new study, published March 18, 2019 in the journal Nature Communications.

Although the laser treatment is far from ready for human use, George believes identifying these neurons opens the door to developing drug therapies or even gene therapies for alcohol addiction.

We need compounds that are specific to this neuronal circuitry, George says.

According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, more than 15.1 million adults in the United States suffer from alcohol use disorder. Previous work at Scripps Research has shown that transitioning from casual drinking to dependent drinking occurs alongside fundamental changes in how the brain sends signals. These signals drive the intense cravings that make it so difficult for many people to scale back their alcohol consumption.

George and his colleagues have been hunting for the brain cells that driving drinking in an alcohol-addicted rat model. In 2016, they reported that they had found a possible source: a neuronal ensemble, or group of connected cells in a brain region called the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). This finding marked major progress in mapping the brain, but the researchers needed to characterize the identity of the neurons in this ensemble.

For the new study, they tested the role of a subset of neurons in the ensemble, called corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons. The George laboratory had found that these CRF neurons make up 80 percent of the ensemble. Were these neurons the masterminds driving alcohol cravings?

The researchers studied these neurons using optogenetics, a technique that involves the use of light to control cells in living tissue. Rats used in this study were surgically implanted with optic fibers aimed to shine light on the CRF neurons to inactivate them at the flip of a switch.

First, the scientists established a baseline for how much the rats would drink before they got addicted to alcohol. The rats drank little this point the equivalent of a glass of wine or one beer for a human. The scientists then spent several months increasing consumption in these rats to establish alcohol dependence.

The researchers then withdrew the alcohol, prompting withdrawal symptoms in the rats. When they offered alcohol again, the rats drank more than ever. The CeA neuronal ensemble was active, telling the rats to drink more.

Then the scientists flipped on the lasers to inactivate the CRF neurons and the results were dramatic. The rats immediately returned to their pre-dependent drinking levels. The intense motivation to drink had gone away. Inactivating these neurons also reduced the physical symptoms of withdrawal, such as abnormal gait and shaking.

In this multidisciplinary study, we were able to characterize, target and manipulate a critical subset of neurons responsible for excessive drinking. says Giordano de Guglielmo, PhD, first author of the study and staff scientist at Scripps Research. This was a team effort, and while we used challenging techniques, working with experts in the field and with the right tools, made everything easier and enjoyable.

The effect was even reversible. Turn off the lasers, and the rats returned to their dependent behavior.

From a basic science standpoint, this breakthrough is huge: It reveals wiring in the brain that drives a specific, destructive behavior. George says the next step in translating this work to humans is to find a way to selectively inhibit only these specific CRF neurons, perhaps using a novel or repurposed compound identified using high-throughput screening of large libraries of compounds.

Meanwhile, de Guglielmo plans to take a closer look at the signaling pathways in the brain affected when the CRF neurons are deactivated. The new study shows that reduced drinking is tied to the CRF neurons that send projections to reach another brain region called the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. De Guglielmo thinks other projections from these neurons may have different roles in alcohol addiction. He is also interested in identifying the role of these brain circuits in opioid addiction.

Additional authors of the study, Inactivation of a CRF-dependent amygdalofugal pathway reverses addiction-like behaviors in alcohol-dependent rats, were Marsida Kallupi, Elena Crawford, Sierra Simpson and Paul Schweitzer of Scripps Research; Matthew B. Pomrenze and Robert O. Messing of The University of Texas at Austin; and George F. Koob of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health.

The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grants AA006420, AA020608, AA022977, AA13588 and AA026075).

Neurological Disorders Neuroscience George, Olivier Addiction Science News
LINK: https://www.scripps.edu/news-and-events/press-room/2019/20190318-georg...
See more stories from scripps

Most recent headlines

24/06/2019

The IOC, The Coca-Cola Company and China Mengniu Dairy Company Ltd announce Joint Worldwide Olympic Partnership to 2032

The IOC, The Coca-Cola Company and China Mengniu Dairy Company Ltd announce Join...

24/06/2019

Crown Media Claims Upfront Price and Volume Increases

Crown Media Family Networks said it finished its upfront negotiations, registering an increase in dollar sales volume and a double digit increase in commercial ...

24/06/2019

Netflix's Sarandos insists no plans to introduce advertising, or sport

Both are not core to the proposition of the streamer Jenny Priestley 5 hours ago Both are not core to the proposition of the streamer target=_blank t...

24/06/2019

Barco launches smart solution for remote radiology reading

Barco launches smart solution for remote radiology reading Kortrijk, Belgium, 24 June 2019 - Barco's remote radiology reading solution ensures dependable im...

24/06/2019

3D characters walk out of...

University of Washington researchers have developed a method to make people and characters walk out of still photos or paintings. The computer scientists deve...

24/06/2019

Analog Way appoints Demetrio Faroldi as EMEA sales...

Analog Way has named Demetrio Faroldi as sales director for EMEA. In his new position Faroldi leads the EMEA sales team to steer the development of sales across...

24/06/2019

Samsung installs 1,000 sq m LED screen in Times...

Samsung Electronics completed a huge five-screen LED display installation at the One Times Square building in New York City. The displays from Samsung measure m...

24/06/2019

Christie signs global reseller agreement with Arts...

Dale Miller, executive vice president, Cinema, Christie Christie has officially announced a worldwide* reseller agreement with cinema software provider Arts A...

24/06/2019

Holoplot to outline groundbreaking immersive audio tech in...

Holoplot will stage a webinar exploring the creation of immersive sound experiences using room acoustics on July 3, 2019. Audio technology innovator Holoplot ...

24/06/2019

CBC'ers Make Indy Week Best of Triangle List for 2019

CBC entities made Indy Week's 2019 Best of the Triangle list, published in June. Independent Weekly recently release the list of 2019 Indy Week Best of the...

24/06/2019

The Empire Strips Back in America

The Empire Strips Back in America posted: 24/06/2019 Hugely successful Australian burlesque Star Wars parody The Empire Strips Back has just completed i...

24/06/2019

Foxtel and Screen Australia announce new series Money School

24 06 2019 - Media release Foxtel and Screen Australia announce new series Money School Scott Pape Foxtel and Screen Australia announced today a new four-par...

24/06/2019

The propaganda films of apartheid-era South Africa

24 June, 2019 - 06:06 In the 1970s and 80s, the apartheid government funded a little-known film scheme aimed at black South Africans. In 1973, a ground-brea...

23/06/2019

Olympic Golden Rings award winners unveiled in front of 1,000 guests in Lausanne

Olympic Golden Rings award winners unveiled in front of 1,000 guests in Lausanne posted: 23/06/2019 This evening, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) ...

22/06/2019

Michael Ledesma uses Elation for Santana House of Blues residency

Michael Ledesma uses Elation for Santana House of Blues residency posted: 22/06/2019 One of our industry's most renowned and longest serving lighting de...

22/06/2019

NEP completes construction of Netherlands data centre

NEP completes construction of Netherlands data centre posted: 22/06/2019 NEP has completed the construction of its new data centre at the Media Park in th...

22/06/2019

Passaic County Technical Institute Upgrades Studio with Three JVC CONNECTED CAM Cameras

-- JVC Professional Video, a division of JVCKENWOOD USA Corporation, today ann...

22/06/2019

CableLabs Publishes Specifications for Low Latency DOCSIS

CableLabs has released new specifications for DOCSIS 3.1 that enable the HFC network technology standard to support the very low latency required for virtual re...

22/06/2019

international travel tips + tricks

Tools Of The Trade Jun 10, 2019 Bags are packed, tickets are booked, rides have been arranged. You're going on the trip of a lifetime, so we're her...

22/06/2019

Star Trails + Night Photos with Space Tourism Guide

Tools Of The Trade Jun 20, 2019 Words and photos by Valerie Stimac, the founder of Space Tourism Guide When it comes to night photography, there's one...

22/06/2019

DC COMMEMORATES 80 YEARS OF BATMAN WITH MURAL ART SERIES IN MAJOR CITIES

June 11, 2019 Burbank, CA - Heading into the summer celebrations of Batman 80th, DC is bringing fans a series of murals inspired by The World's Greatest D...

22/06/2019

CNN Launching Go There Show on Facebook Watch

June 12, 2019 Following the successful first year of Anderson Cooper Full Circle on Facebook Watch, CNN is launching a new show on the platform - Go There -...

22/06/2019

SUPERGIRL: THE COMPLETE FOURTH SEASON FLYING ONTO SHELVES SEPTEMBER 17, 2019

June 12, 2019 Burbank, CA) - Just in time for the fifth season premiere on The CW, catch up with one of TV's favorite DC Super Heroes as Warner Bros. Home...

22/06/2019

WARNER BROS. ANIMATION WORLD PREMIERES LOONEY TUNES CARTOONS AT THE ANNECY INTERNATIONAL ANIMATION FILM FESTIVAL

June 12, 2019 Burbank, CA - In what was one of the most-anticipated presentati...

22/06/2019

SUPERNATURAL: THE COMPLETE FOURTEENTH SEASON AVAILABLE ON BLU-RAYTM AND DVD SEPTEMBER 10, 2019

June 12, 2019 Burbank, CA - Reunited, and it feels so good! Or does it? The th...

22/06/2019

THE PATH TO THE 31ST CENTURY BEGINS THIS SEPTEMBER WITH DC'S LEGION OF SUPER-HEROES: MILLENNIUM

June 13, 2019 Burbank, CA - This September, DC fans will embark on a journey i...

22/06/2019

HBO LATINO AND THE NEW YORK LATINO FILM FESTIVAL LAUNCH THE LATINOS STAND-UP COMPETITION

A National Competition In Search Of Top Latino Comedians Hosted By Comedian Gin...

22/06/2019

Season Three of Inside Evil with Chris Cuomo on HLN Features Chilling Last Interview with Serial Killer Andrew Urdiales

Five-Part Investigative Series Premieres Sunday, June 30 at 9PM ET/PT Series Tr...

22/06/2019

HBO ACQUIRES NORTH AMERICAN TV RIGHTS TO DOCUMENTARY ERNIE & JOE, A RIVETING LOOK AT POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS AND MENTAL ILLNESS

June 13, 2019 HBO Documentary Films has acquired North American TV and streami...

22/06/2019

THE PATH TO THE 31st CENTURY BEGINS THIS SEPTEMBER WITH LEGION OF SUPER-HEROES: MILLENNIUM

Two-Issue Prelude Series Serves as Gateway to an All-New LEGION OF SUPER-HEROES ...

22/06/2019

DC BLACK LABEL REIMAGINES HARLEY QUINN'S ORIGIN IN HARLEEN FROM WRITER AND ARTIST STJEPAN EJI

June 14, 2019 This September, DC Black Label will debut an intoxicating new li...

22/06/2019

TBS' CONAN Heads to Ghana for All-New International Primetime Special

CONAN without Borders: Ghana airs Tuesday, September 17 at 10 p.m. (ET/PT) on TBS. June 14, 2019 LOS ANGELES - June 14, 2019 - TBS' CONAN will take the ...

22/06/2019

Sneak Preview: Batman and Superman Unite to Uncover the Secret Six!

June 14, 2019 Up in the sky, in the dark of the night, trust no one-for the Secret Six walk among us! Spinning out of the devastating events of DC's THE B...

22/06/2019

CNN Digital: #1 in Audience, Mobile, Video, Millennials, Politics & Social in May

Biggest Month Ever in Mobile Unique Visitors June 17, 2019 CNN Digital remain...

22/06/2019

Johnita Due Named SVP and Chief Diversity & Inclusion Officer for WarnerMedia News and Sports

June 17, 2019 Johnita Due has been named Senior Vice President and Chief Diver...

22/06/2019

VSN tips The Four Musts to efficiently optimize and automate your workflows

The rise of the automation era is rapidly transforming the Media & entertainment industry. The reality is that automation has the potential to increase cost sav...

22/06/2019

Vizrt celebrates a mass of customer wins at NewscastStu

In the inaugural Broadcast Production Awards, by NewscastStudio, Vizrt-powered studios have won awards in the categories of Set Design and Branding & Motion Des...

22/06/2019

SYDNEY THEATRE COMPANY SWITCHES TO CORE BY DPA AMPLIFIER TECHNOLOGY

Better dynamic range and improved resilience to harsh treatment on and off stage is a key reason why STC is investing in d:screet CORE 4061 Miniature Microphon...

22/06/2019

Broadcast Pix Drives Visual Radio System for Onda Madrid

Onda Madrid, a public radio station in Madrid, is part of the Public Corporation of Radio Televisi n Madrid. Spanish manufacturer AEQ has been providing technol...

22/06/2019

Indias Ramoji Group/ETV selects Aveco Automation for 24 News Channels

India s Ramoji Group/ETV selects Aveco Automation for 24 News Channels 24 Studios, 24 24/7 News Channels, 13 Languages. Prague, Czech Republic, June 6, 2019 ...

22/06/2019

Eurovision Sport partners with Dazzl.tv

Eurovision Sport partners with Dazzl.tv...

22/06/2019

NOKIA BELL LABS AND AMBER RESEARCHERS FORMULATE NEW BATTERY DESIGN FOR THE 5G WORLD

NOKIA BELL LABS AND AMBER RESEARCHERS FORMULATE NEW BATTERY DESIGN FOR THE 5G WO...

22/06/2019

University of Notre Dame Obtains Phantom UltraHigh-Speed v1840

The University of Notre Dame's Aero-Optics group (https://aero-optics.nd.edu/) is within the Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Department whose main goal...

22/06/2019

University of South Florida Obtains Phantom VEO 640L for Laboratory

The Murphy Lab at the University of South Florida (https://www.murphyfluidslab.com/) was created in order to explore fluid mechanics in the context of biology, ...

22/06/2019

LinkedIn raises employee donation match to 15K annually

LinkedIn raises employee donation match to 15K annually Published on Jun 21, 2019 LinkedIn Corporate Communications Team Share LinkedIn Facebook T...

22/06/2019

Fans Couldn't Wait for Vampire Weekend's Father of the Bride-And Their Streams Show It

American indie rockers Vampire Weekend are all grown up-and in the six years sin...

22/06/2019

Midsummer Means Classic Swedish Music and Lots of Tomas Ledin

For those who don't call Sweden home, the country likely makes you think of Spotify, as well as IKEA, meatballs, and fika. But Sweden is also well known for...

22/06/2019

Anitta and Spotify Light Up Miami with Festa Kisses Fan Experience

Touting more than 16.5 million monthly listeners on Spotify, Anitta is a force to be reckoned with in Latin music. On June 18 in the heart of Miami's boomi...