Sony Digital Rapids Pixel Power calrec Sony

November 18, 2019

19/11/2019

Experimental HIV vaccine successfully elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies to the virus Vaccinated rabbits produce antibodies to at least two vulnerable sites on HIV.

November 18, 2019

LA JOLLA, CA An experimental HIV vaccine developed by scientists at Scripps Research and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) has reached an important milestone by eliciting antibodies that can neutralize a wide variety of HIV strains.

The tests, in rabbits, showed that these broadly neutralizing antibodies, or bnAbs, targeted at least two critical sites on the virus. Researchers widely assume that a vaccine must elicit bnAbs to multiple sites on HIV if it is to provide robust protection against this ever-changing virus.

The promising results, which appear in Immunity, suggest that researchers are one step closer to developing an effective HIV vaccine a major goal of medical science ever since the virus was identified in 1983.

It's an initial proof of principle but an important one, and we're now working to optimize this vaccine design, says the study's senior author Richard Wyatt, PhD, a professor in the Department of Immunology and Microbiology at Scripps Research.

According to UNAIDS, about 35 million people worldwide have died of the immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, which is caused by HIV infection. About 38 million others are now living with HIV infection. Antiviral drugs can keep HIV-infected people alive and reduce their ability to transmit the virus to others, but these drugs do not clear the infection and must be taken indefinitely. Researchers have long recognized that a preventive vaccine, available at a low cost to uninfected people, will be needed to eliminate HIV as a major public health threat.

HIV's rapid mutation rate and other mechanisms for evading immune attack have made it an extremely difficult target for vaccine designers. But the test conducted by Wyatt and his team confirms that vaccination can elicit the kinds of antibodies that are needed to provide broad protection against HIV. These bnAbs, as vaccine experts call them, can neutralize multiple HIV strains because they bind to critical sites on the virus that do not vary much from strain to strain. People who are infected with HIV sometimes produce bnAbs as part of their antibody response, but infrequently and usually after infection has been long established. The chief challenge for HIV vaccine designers has been to find ways to stimulate the immune system in most or all individuals into making bnAbs that hit multiple vulnerable sites on the virus, in order to protect against a high proportion of HIV strains.

At the heart of the vaccine design by Wyatt and colleagues is a virus-mimicking protein based on HIV's Env protein. Normally, multiple copies of bush-like Env proteins are spread out on the surface of each spherical HIV particle. Each Env protein contains a molecular mechanism that allows it to bind to a receptor on immune cells known as CD4, and use that receptor as a portal to break into the cell. The researchers engineered a version of Env that models the essential structures on the real Env while being stable enough to use as a vaccine. To present it in a way that would resemble a real HIV virus particle, they created virus-sized synthetic spheres of fat-related molecules, liposomes, which are studded densely with the engineered Env proteins.

On a natural HIV Env protein, thickets of sugar-related molecules called glycans normally help shield the all-important CD4 binding site from immune attack. As an initial priming immunization, the researchers used versions of Env in which this glycan shield around the CD4 binding site had been partly removed.

The idea was to better expose this site and thereby stimulate a broad antibody reaction to it at the start, Wyatt says.

Subsequent booster immunizations over 48 weeks used Env proteins with restored glycans, to select for antibodies that target the CD4 binding site but can also get through this shield. The Env proteins in the booster shots also were mixes based on different strains of HIV, to generally promote antibody responses against Env structures that do not vary among these strains.

The team inoculated 12 rabbits following their vaccine strategy and compared the results with a control group that received only a single, glycan-shielded version of Env. They found that their vaccine strategy had a much better response, with five of the rabbits developing antibodies that could neutralize multiple HIV isolates.

The researchers analyzed the antibodies of the rabbit that had responded most strongly, and identified two distinct types of bnAb. One, which they called E70, blocks the CD4 binding site as expected, though in an unusual way partly by grabbing one of the shielding glycans. The other, 1C2, hits a different but well known vulnerable spot on Env, at the interface between two key segments of the complex protein. The binding of antibody 1C2 apparently destabilizes Env so that it can no longer mediate HIV's entry into host cells. That antibody also turned out to have an unusual breadth of neutralization, blocking 87 percent of a panel of 208 distinct HIV isolates.

The finding is an important demonstration that vaccination against HIV, if done in the right way, can achieve the goal of inducing bnAbs to multiple sites on the virus, Wyatt says.

The team of scientists are continuing to test and improve their vaccine strategy in small animal models and hope eventually to test it in monkeys and then humans.

The co-lead authors of the study, Vaccination with Glycan-Modified HIV NFL Envelope Trimer-Liposomes Elicits Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to Multiple Sites of Vulnerability, were Viktoriya Dubrovskaya, PhD, and Gabriel Ozorowski, PhD, of Scripps Research and Karen Tran, PhD, of the IAVI Neutralizing Antibod
LINK: https://www.scripps.edu/news-and-events/press-room/2019/20191118-wyatt...
See more stories from scripps

Europe Stories

13/07/2020

OVER 4,000 entries to RT Short Story Competition 2020 - A new record

We Irish have an obsessive need to tell stories - Madeleine Keane You're looking for someone who can make an entire world in 2,000 words - Vincent Woo...

12/07/2020

Spotify Users Have Spent Over 2.3 Billion Hours Streaming Discover Weekly Playlists Since 2015

Discover Weekly, your weekly mixtape of fresh music, is celebrating an anniversa...

12/07/2020

2020-07-10

Apple today announced a new set of tools to help educators teach coding to students from school to university. In addition to significant enhancements to the D...

11/07/2020

Digital Nirvana Introduces MediaServicesIQ Custom AI Workflows Portal

Digital Nirvana Introduces MediaServicesIQ Custom AI Workflows Portal posted: 10/07/2020 Digital Nirvana today announced the launch of MediaServicesIQ , a c...

11/07/2020

Madison Area Technical College Revitalizes Broadcast Studio with Adorama Business Solutions

Madison Area Technical College Revitalizes Broadcast Studio with Adorama Busines...

11/07/2020

EcoDigital Launches ECOPro Managed Services for Secure, Predictive, and Proactive Digital Asset Management

EcoDigital Launches ECOPro Managed Services for Secure, Predictive, and Proactiv...

11/07/2020

JP Delport promoted Managing Director at Broadcast Solutions UK

JP Delport promoted Managing Director at Broadcast Solutions UK posted: 10/07/2020 Broadcast Solutions UK are pleased to announce the appointment of JP De...

11/07/2020

France's Eventlive-Group Acquires Claypaky Mini-B LED Moving Lights

France's Eventlive-Group Acquires Claypaky Mini-B LED Moving Lights posted: 10/07/2020 Claypaky Mini-B fixtures for Eventlive-Group. Eventlive-Group,...

11/07/2020

System T Next Generation V3.0 Release Evolves AoIP Routing, Management And Security For Broadcast Audio Production

System T Next Generation V3.0 Release Evolves AoIP Routing, Management And Secur...

11/07/2020

Ericsson to deploy private mobile network at Paris Airports for Groupe ADP, Hub One and Air France

The 4/5G network will serve a professional ecosystem of more than 120,000 people...

10/07/2020

LA Colorist & Finishing artist Juan Cabrera to reveal high-profile episodic finishing workflow with Mistika Ultima and Boutique

View Larger Image Join us in a special online Mistika 10 Masterclass, where L...

10/07/2020

Dave and CALM put smiles on faces

9 July 2020 On your masks, get set, go! TV channel Dave and the Campaign Against Living Miserably (CALM) have teamed up once again and created a set of face mas...

10/07/2020

BLACKMAGIC DESIGN ANNOUNCES NEW ATEM ADVANCED PANELS

BLACKMAGIC DESIGN ANNOUNCES NEW ATEM ADVANCED PANELS posted: 10/07/2020 2 massive new control panels for all ATEM switchers feature a combination of innov...

10/07/2020

Astera Launches NYX Bulb

Astera Launches NYX Bulb posted: 10/07/2020 Leading wireless LED lighting manufacturer Astera launches its newest innovation - the NYX Bulb - a name inspi...

10/07/2020

Ross Video Announces Ross Live 2020 Season Finale

Ross Video Announces Ross Live 2020 Season Finale posted: 10/07/2020 For the past ten weeks Ross Video has been hosting Ross Live | 2020, a weekly series of...

10/07/2020

Arqiva and Sensus to deliver smart water network for Anglian Water

Arqiva, the leading UK communications infrastructure and media services provider, has been selected, with their partner global water technology company Sensus, ...

10/07/2020

Case Study: The Making of Normal People

Colourist Gary Curran talks to TVBEurope about his work on the hit BBC drama By Contributor Published: July 10, 2020 Colourist Gary Curran talks to TVBEuro...

10/07/2020

Christina Sulebakk named HBO Europe chief

Succeeds Herve Payan who is leaving the company at the end of August By Jenny Priestley Published: July 10, 2020 Succeeds Herve Payan who is leaving the co...

10/07/2020

YouTube not required to reveal private details of pirates rules ECJ

German court sought the ECJs guidance on what video platforms must do to combat film piracy By Jenny Priestley Published: July 10, 2020 German court sought...

10/07/2020

Dejero and First Mile ease creative collaboration process for film, TV and commercial production during COVID-19 and beyond

Dejero and First Mile ease creative collaboration process for film, TV and comme...

10/07/2020

Bandit Lights Boards and Boats at Blackberry Farm

Bandit Lights Boards and Boats at Blackberry Farm posted: 10/07/2020 Bandit Lites returned to the picturesque countryside of Blackberry Farm for Boards and ...

10/07/2020

Broadcast Media Veteran Greg Doggett Joins TVU Networks in Sports and Entertainment Sales Capacity

Broadcast Media Veteran Greg Doggett Joins TVU Networks in Sports and Entertainm...

10/07/2020

Robe Painted the Town Red

Robe Painted the Town Red posted: 10/07/2020 Northampton Red - Delapre Abbey Robe UK was extremely proud to work with a number of companies, organisation...

10/07/2020

SES Ends Social Plan Talks, Moves to Employment Safeguard Plan Discussions

Written on 09 Jul 2020 Luxembourg, 9 July 2020 - SES has reached an agreement with its personnel delegations to discontinue social plan talks for Luxembourg-b...

10/07/2020

Inspired in self-isolation (8)

Inspired in self-isolation (8) posted: 09/07/2020 With Covid-19 lockdowns worldwide and health authorities urging people to self-isolate and practice soci...

10/07/2020

Lawo IP AV and core infrastructure upgrades Mediapro Argentina

Lawo IP AV and core infrastructure upgrades Mediapro Argentina posted: 09/07/2020 Mediapro Argentina, Latin American audiovisual services company, based in ...

10/07/2020

Invitation to media and analyst briefing for Ericsson Q2 2020 report

Ericssons (NASDAQ: ERIC) financial report for the second quarter 2020 will be published at approximately 7:00 AM CEST on July 17, 2020. The company will issue...

10/07/2020

Lawo IP AV and core infrastructure upgrades Mediapro Argentina

Mediapro Argentina, Latin American audiovisual services company, based in Buenos Aires, has recently turned to IP for a comprehensive technical upgrade of their...

09/07/2020

Capturing change: strategies for safely covering protests

A massive wave of solidarity protests against racial injustice have been staged across the United States and worldwide following a series of killings in the US,...

09/07/2020

How To Handle Archives Of Sports Content

-- How To Handle Archives Of Sports Content When COVID-19 restrictions started being introduced, the cancellation of sports fixtures was greeted with respect f...

09/07/2020

NEP Opens Integrated Remote Production Centre at MediaCityUK

NEP Opens Integrated Remote Production Centre at MediaCityUK MANCHESTER, UK | July 9, 2020...

09/07/2020

VEON announces the refinancing of its RUB 30 billion loan agreement with VTB

Amsterdam, 9 July 2020 - VEON Ltd. (NASDAQ: VEON, Euronext Amsterdam: VEON) announced today that its subsidiary VEON Holdings B.V. has successfully refinanced i...

09/07/2020

Akamai Technologies To Hold Second Quarter 2020 Investor Conference Call on Tuesday, July 28, 2020 at 4:30 PM ET

Akamai Technologies To Hold Second Quarter 2020 Investor Conference Call on Tues...

09/07/2020

Plug-in Collective: Black Rooster Audio

Our Plug-in Collective community giveaway for July/August is a superb tape emulation effect from German developer Black Rooster Audio. From 9th July to 3rd Sept...

09/07/2020

Sky Studios Elstree receives planning approval

Work begins this month on world-leading, state-of-the-art film & TV studio - set to open in 2022 Joint project between Sky, NBCUniversal and Legal & General re...

09/07/2020

Brightcove Video Technology Boosts Internal and External Communications for Afcons, India's Leading Infrastructure Company

Afcons leveraged Brightcove Video Cloud to distribute short-form videos highligh...

09/07/2020

Let Love Rule secures commission in Sweden

Love continues to rule Let Love Rule secures commission in Sweden July 9th, 2020 - ITV Studios daily dating format Let Love Rule, created by John de Mol, is t...

09/07/2020

Arjan Pomper appointed as Chief Operating Officer Global Entertainment, ITV Studios

Arjan Pomper appointed as Chief Operating Officer Global Entertainment, ITV Stud...

09/07/2020

ITV announces Diversity Acceleration Plan

ITV announces Diversity Acceleration Plan ITV today outlined its plans to accelerate change in diversity and inclusion on screen and across ITV by creating mo...

09/07/2020

2020-07-09

Apple today announced a new set of tools to help educators teach coding to students from school to university. In addition to significant enhancements to the D...

09/07/2020

Revamp Your Fitness Routine With Soundtrack Your Workout

When you're struggling through a grueling run, sometimes you just need the right beat to push you over the finish line. Or as you lie on a yoga mat, maybe y...

09/07/2020

EBU appoints Wouter Gekiere Head of Brussels Office

EBU appoints Wouter Gekiere Head of Brussels Office...

09/07/2020

Rose d'Or Awards announce two new award categories, as nominations open for the 59th edition

Rose d'Or Awards announce two new award categories, as nominations open for ...

09/07/2020

Case study: Continuity in crisis

Rapid Pictures and Radiant Post keep calm and carry on with remote business as usual supported by ERA By TVBEurope Staff Published: July 9, 2020 Rapid Pict...

09/07/2020

Sound thinking: BBC helps audience to hear the details

Philip Stevens explores object-based media and how the BBC is using it to enhance the experience for viewers with hearing difficulties By Philip Stevens Publi...

09/07/2020

Matt McConnell appointed MediaKind CEO

Will be responsible for spearheading growth in MediaKind's Cloud-based solutions and its focus on streaming products By Jenny Priestley Published: July 9,...

09/07/2020

Work to begin on Sky Studios Elstree after planning permission granted

Will include 12 sound stages, with the ability to merge together and sub-divide multiple sound stages simultaneously By Jenny Priestley Published: July 9, 202...

09/07/2020

Ikegami introduces 4K camera for aerial video capture

Cameras image adjustment capabilities include haze removal, backlight correction and digital zoom By Jenny Priestley Published: July 9, 2020 Camera's i...

09/07/2020

TVU Networks appoints Greg Doggett to oversee sports and entertainment

He will be tasked with spearheading the deployment of the companys IP-based Cloud solutions By Jenny Priestley Published: July 9, 2020 He will be tasked wi...